Mexico Facts: Discover Its Culture, History, and More

Mexico features diverse landscapes and a complex demography influenced by rich history, various climates, and distinct cultural evolution.

Geography and People


Mexico, officially known as the United Mexican States, is located in North America and covers an area of approximately 1.96 million square kilometers.

It shares borders with the United States to the north, and Guatemala and Belize to the south.

Its diverse landscape includes various mountain ranges such as the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental, and the Cordillera Neovolcánica.

The country’s terrain also features expansive plains and plateaus, such as the Yucatán Peninsula and the Baja California Peninsula, which stretches alongside the Gulf of California.

Additionally, Mexico’s coastline extends along both the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

Climate and Environment

Mexico’s geographical location and varied topography contribute to its diverse climate, ranging from arid deserts in the north to tropical rainforests in the south.

The country is known for its rich biodiversity and abundant natural resources, housing more than 10% of the world’s species.

The vast expanses of forests in Mexico provide habitats for a range of plant and animal species.

In particular, states like Chiapas and Veracruz have dense vegetation, while Chihuahua, the largest state in Mexico, is known for its desert landscapes.


Mexico is the 11th most populous country in the world, with over 126 million inhabitants.

The Mexican people are a diverse group, comprising of various indigenous cultures, descendants of Spanish colonial settlers, and other immigrant communities.

Spanish is the most widely spoken language, with Mexico having the largest population of Spanish speakers in the world.

Major Cities

Mexico City, the capital and largest city of the country, has a population of approximately 9 million.

It is a significant economic, political, and cultural center in Latin America.

Other major cities in Mexico include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, and Toluca.

Each city offers unique experiences for tourists by showcasing Mexico’s rich heritage and natural beauty.

In conclusion, Mexico’s diverse geography, climate, and demographics make it a fascinating country to explore and learn about.

As you delve deeper into these aspects of the nation, you’ll come to appreciate its rich culture, history, and the vibrant Mexican people.

History and Culture

A colorful market with traditional Mexican crafts and food, surrounded by ancient ruins and vibrant murals

Pre-Columbian Civilizations

Mexico has a rich history that spans over three millennia, with early civilizations such as the Olmec, Maya, and Mexica (or Aztec).

The Olmec civilization was the first major civilization in Mexico and is known for their large stone head sculptures.

The Maya civilization, a highly developed society, built monumental pyramids such as Chichén Itzá and left behind a sophisticated mathematical and astronomical knowledge.

The Mexica, also known as the Aztecs, ruled a vast empire centered in Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City.

Colonial Era

In the early 16th century, Spanish explorers arrived in Mexico and initiated the era of Spanish rule, which lasted for almost 300 years.

This period, known as the Colonial Era, transformed Mexico’s culture, and introduced European elements to its customs and religion.

Spain’s rule ended in 1821, when Mexico achieved its independence after a long struggle.

Modern History

Following independence, Mexico experienced political unrest and territorial losses, such as Texas and parts of Arizona, Utah, and California to the United States.

Despite these challenges, Mexico continued to grow, with mestizo (mixed European and indigenous) culture becoming an integral part of Mexican identity.

Today, Mexico is a federal republic comprised of 31 states and a federal district.

Festivals and Traditions

Mexico is known for its vibrant festivals and traditions.

Some of the most famous ones include Día de Muertos (Day of the Dead) and Las Posadas.

Día de Muertos is a time to honor deceased loved ones, while Las Posadas is a Christmas celebration involving re-enactments of Mary and Joseph’s journey to seek shelter.

Arts and Literature

Mexican art and literature have a rich history, influenced by both indigenous cultures and international artists.

Pioneers like Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo are celebrated for their contributions to Mexican culture.

Mexico has also produced several renowned writers, such as Octavio Paz and Juan Rulfo.

Culinary Heritage

Mexican cuisine has a diverse heritage, with ingredients like beans, avocado, and tomato, which are native to Mexico.

It incorporates Mayan, Aztec, Spanish, and European influences to create its unique flavors.

Staples of Mexican cuisine include corn, beans, chilies, and other spices.

Popular dishes like tacos, enchiladas, and guacamole have made their way onto menus worldwide.

The country’s culinary scene was honored when UNESCO recognized it as part of the world’s Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Religious Beliefs

The arrival of Spanish explorers brought Roman Catholicism to Mexico, which became the main religion of the country.

The majority of Mexicans identify as Catholic, although there is also a presence of other faiths, as well as folk traditions that merge indigenous beliefs with Catholic practices.

Mexico is a secular state, with the 1917 Constitution ensuring the separation of church and state.